Eco-Conversion of Two Winery Lignocellulosic Wastes into Fillers for Biocomposites: Vine Shoots and Wine Pomaces
Two winery residues, namely vine shoots (ViSh) and wine pomace (WiPo), were up-cycled as fillers in PHBV-based biocomposites. Answering a biorefinery approach, the impact of a preliminary polyphenols extraction step using an acetone/water mixture on the reinforcing effect of fillers was assessed. Biocomposites (filler content up to 20 wt%) were prepared by melt-mixing and compared in terms of final performance (thermal, mechanical and barrier). It was shown that the reinforcing effect was slightly better in the case of vine shoots, while it was not significantly affected by the pre-treatment, demonstrating that these two winery residues could be perfectly used as fillers in composite materials even after an extraction process to maximize their potential of valorization.